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Promise based HTTP client for the browser and node.js

Home Page: https://axios-http.com

License: MIT License

JavaScript 86.40% HTML 1.84% TypeScript 11.56% Handlebars 0.20%
http-client javascript nodejs promise hacktoberfest

axios's Introduction


Promise based HTTP client for the browser and node.js

Website β€’ Documentation

npm version CDNJS Build status Gitpod Ready-to-Code code coverage install size npm bundle size npm downloads gitter chat code helpers Known Vulnerabilities

Table of Contents

Features

  • Make XMLHttpRequests from the browser
  • Make http requests from node.js
  • Supports the Promise API
  • Intercept request and response
  • Transform request and response data
  • Cancel requests
  • Automatic transforms for JSON data
  • πŸ†• Automatic data object serialization to multipart/form-data and x-www-form-urlencoded body encodings
  • Client side support for protecting against XSRF

Browser Support

Chrome Firefox Safari Opera Edge IE
Latest βœ” Latest βœ” Latest βœ” Latest βœ” Latest βœ” 11 βœ”

Browser Matrix

Installing

Package manager

Using npm:

$ npm install axios

Using bower:

$ bower install axios

Using yarn:

$ yarn add axios

Using pnpm:

$ pnpm add axios

Once the package is installed, you can import the library using import or require approach:

import axios, {isCancel, AxiosError} from 'axios';

You can also use the default export, since the named export is just a re-export from the Axios factory:

import axios from 'axios';

console.log(axios.isCancel('something'));

If you use require for importing, only default export is available:

const axios = require('axios');

console.log(axios.isCancel('something'));

For cases where something went wrong when trying to import a module into a custom or legacy environment, you can try importing the module package directly:

const axios = require('axios/dist/browser/axios.cjs'); // browser commonJS bundle (ES2017)
// const axios = require('axios/dist/node/axios.cjs'); // node commonJS bundle (ES2017)

CDN

Using jsDelivr CDN (ES5 UMD browser module):

<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/[email protected]/dist/axios.min.js"></script>

Using unpkg CDN:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/[email protected]/dist/axios.min.js"></script>

Example

Note CommonJS usage In order to gain the TypeScript typings (for intellisense / autocomplete) while using CommonJS imports with require(), use the following approach:

import axios from 'axios';
//const axios = require('axios'); // legacy way

// Make a request for a user with a given ID
axios.get('/user?ID=12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    // handle success
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    // handle error
    console.log(error);
  })
  .finally(function () {
    // always executed
  });

// Optionally the request above could also be done as
axios.get('/user', {
    params: {
      ID: 12345
    }
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  })
  .finally(function () {
    // always executed
  });

// Want to use async/await? Add the `async` keyword to your outer function/method.
async function getUser() {
  try {
    const response = await axios.get('/user?ID=12345');
    console.log(response);
  } catch (error) {
    console.error(error);
  }
}

Note async/await is part of ECMAScript 2017 and is not supported in Internet Explorer and older browsers, so use with caution.

Performing a POST request

axios.post('/user', {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  });

Performing multiple concurrent requests

function getUserAccount() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345');
}

function getUserPermissions() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions');
}

Promise.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
  .then(function (results) {
    const acct = results[0];
    const perm = results[1];
  });

axios API

Requests can be made by passing the relevant config to axios.

axios(config)
// Send a POST request
axios({
  method: 'post',
  url: '/user/12345',
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  }
});
// GET request for remote image in node.js
axios({
  method: 'get',
  url: 'https://bit.ly/2mTM3nY',
  responseType: 'stream'
})
  .then(function (response) {
    response.data.pipe(fs.createWriteStream('ada_lovelace.jpg'))
  });
axios(url[, config])
// Send a GET request (default method)
axios('/user/12345');

Request method aliases

For convenience, aliases have been provided for all common request methods.

axios.request(config)
axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.options(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
NOTE

When using the alias methods url, method, and data properties don't need to be specified in config.

Concurrency (Deprecated)

Please use Promise.all to replace the below functions.

Helper functions for dealing with concurrent requests.

axios.all(iterable) axios.spread(callback)

Creating an instance

You can create a new instance of axios with a custom config.

axios.create([config])
const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',
  timeout: 1000,
  headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'}
});

Instance methods

The available instance methods are listed below. The specified config will be merged with the instance config.

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#options(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])
axios#getUri([config])

Request Config

These are the available config options for making requests. Only the url is required. Requests will default to GET if method is not specified.

{
  // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request
  url: '/user',

  // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request
  method: 'get', // default

  // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute.
  // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs
  // to methods of that instance.
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',

  // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server
  // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', 'PATCH' and 'DELETE'
  // The last function in the array must return a string or an instance of Buffer, ArrayBuffer,
  // FormData or Stream
  // You may modify the headers object.
  transformRequest: [function (data, headers) {
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data

    return data;
  }],

  // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before
  // it is passed to then/catch
  transformResponse: [function (data) {
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data

    return data;
  }],

  // `headers` are custom headers to be sent
  headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'},

  // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request
  // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object
  params: {
    ID: 12345
  },

  // `paramsSerializer` is an optional config in charge of serializing `params`
  paramsSerializer: {
    encode?: (param: string): string => { /* Do custom ops here and return transformed string */ }, // custom encoder function; sends Key/Values in an iterative fashion
    serialize?: (params: Record<string, any>, options?: ParamsSerializerOptions ), // mimic pre 1.x behavior and send entire params object to a custom serializer func. Allows consumer to control how params are serialized.
    indexes: false // array indexes format (null - no brackets, false (default) - empty brackets, true - brackets with indexes)
  },

  // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body
  // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', 'DELETE , and 'PATCH'
  // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be of one of the following types:
  // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams
  // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob
  // - Node only: Stream, Buffer, FormData (form-data package)
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred'
  },

  // syntax alternative to send data into the body
  // method post
  // only the value is sent, not the key
  data: 'Country=Brasil&City=Belo Horizonte',

  // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out.
  // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted.
  timeout: 1000, // default is `0` (no timeout)

  // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests
  // should be made using credentials
  withCredentials: false, // default

  // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier.
  // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see lib/adapters/README.md).
  adapter: function (config) {
    /* ... */
  },

  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials.
  // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing
  // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.
  // Please note that only HTTP Basic auth is configurable through this parameter.
  // For Bearer tokens and such, use `Authorization` custom headers instead.
  auth: {
    username: 'janedoe',
    password: 's00pers3cret'
  },

  // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with
  // options are: 'arraybuffer', 'document', 'json', 'text', 'stream'
  //   browser only: 'blob'
  responseType: 'json', // default

  // `responseEncoding` indicates encoding to use for decoding responses (Node.js only)
  // Note: Ignored for `responseType` of 'stream' or client-side requests
  responseEncoding: 'utf8', // default

  // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token
  xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default

  // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value
  xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default

  // `onUploadProgress` allows handling of progress events for uploads
  // browser & node.js
  onUploadProgress: function ({loaded, total, progress, bytes, estimated, rate, upload = true}) {
    // Do whatever you want with the Axios progress event
  },

  // `onDownloadProgress` allows handling of progress events for downloads
  // browser & node.js
  onDownloadProgress: function ({loaded, total, progress, bytes, estimated, rate, download = true}) {
    // Do whatever you want with the Axios progress event
  },

  // `maxContentLength` defines the max size of the http response content in bytes allowed in node.js
  maxContentLength: 2000,

  // `maxBodyLength` (Node only option) defines the max size of the http request content in bytes allowed
  maxBodyLength: 2000,

  // `validateStatus` defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given
  // HTTP response status code. If `validateStatus` returns `true` (or is set to `null`
  // or `undefined`), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be
  // rejected.
  validateStatus: function (status) {
    return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default
  },

  // `maxRedirects` defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js.
  // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed.
  maxRedirects: 21, // default

  // `beforeRedirect` defines a function that will be called before redirect.
  // Use this to adjust the request options upon redirecting,
  // to inspect the latest response headers,
  // or to cancel the request by throwing an error
  // If maxRedirects is set to 0, `beforeRedirect` is not used.
  beforeRedirect: (options, { headers }) => {
    if (options.hostname === "example.com") {
      options.auth = "user:password";
    }
  },

  // `socketPath` defines a UNIX Socket to be used in node.js.
  // e.g. '/var/run/docker.sock' to send requests to the docker daemon.
  // Only either `socketPath` or `proxy` can be specified.
  // If both are specified, `socketPath` is used.
  socketPath: null, // default

  // `httpAgent` and `httpsAgent` define a custom agent to be used when performing http
  // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows options to be added like
  // `keepAlive` that are not enabled by default.
  httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),
  httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),

  // `proxy` defines the hostname, port, and protocol of the proxy server.
  // You can also define your proxy using the conventional `http_proxy` and
  // `https_proxy` environment variables. If you are using environment variables
  // for your proxy configuration, you can also define a `no_proxy` environment
  // variable as a comma-separated list of domains that should not be proxied.
  // Use `false` to disable proxies, ignoring environment variables.
  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and
  // supplies credentials.
  // This will set an `Proxy-Authorization` header, overwriting any existing
  // `Proxy-Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.
  // If the proxy server uses HTTPS, then you must set the protocol to `https`.
  proxy: {
    protocol: 'https',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    // hostname: '127.0.0.1' // Takes precedence over 'host' if both are defined
    port: 9000,
    auth: {
      username: 'mikeymike',
      password: 'rapunz3l'
    }
  },

  // `cancelToken` specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request
  // (see Cancellation section below for details)
  cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) {
  }),

  // an alternative way to cancel Axios requests using AbortController
  signal: new AbortController().signal,

  // `decompress` indicates whether or not the response body should be decompressed
  // automatically. If set to `true` will also remove the 'content-encoding' header
  // from the responses objects of all decompressed responses
  // - Node only (XHR cannot turn off decompression)
  decompress: true // default

  // `insecureHTTPParser` boolean.
  // Indicates where to use an insecure HTTP parser that accepts invalid HTTP headers.
  // This may allow interoperability with non-conformant HTTP implementations.
  // Using the insecure parser should be avoided.
  // see options https://nodejs.org/dist/latest-v12.x/docs/api/http.html#http_http_request_url_options_callback
  // see also https://nodejs.org/en/blog/vulnerability/february-2020-security-releases/#strict-http-header-parsing-none
  insecureHTTPParser: undefined // default

  // transitional options for backward compatibility that may be removed in the newer versions
  transitional: {
    // silent JSON parsing mode
    // `true`  - ignore JSON parsing errors and set response.data to null if parsing failed (old behaviour)
    // `false` - throw SyntaxError if JSON parsing failed (Note: responseType must be set to 'json')
    silentJSONParsing: true, // default value for the current Axios version

    // try to parse the response string as JSON even if `responseType` is not 'json'
    forcedJSONParsing: true,

    // throw ETIMEDOUT error instead of generic ECONNABORTED on request timeouts
    clarifyTimeoutError: false,
  },

  env: {
    // The FormData class to be used to automatically serialize the payload into a FormData object
    FormData: window?.FormData || global?.FormData
  },

  formSerializer: {
      visitor: (value, key, path, helpers) => {}; // custom visitor function to serialize form values
      dots: boolean; // use dots instead of brackets format
      metaTokens: boolean; // keep special endings like {} in parameter key
      indexes: boolean; // array indexes format null - no brackets, false - empty brackets, true - brackets with indexes
  },

  // http adapter only (node.js)
  maxRate: [
    100 * 1024, // 100KB/s upload limit,
    100 * 1024  // 100KB/s download limit
  ]
}

Response Schema

The response for a request contains the following information.

{
  // `data` is the response that was provided by the server
  data: {},

  // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response
  status: 200,

  // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response
  statusText: 'OK',

  // `headers` the HTTP headers that the server responded with
  // All header names are lowercase and can be accessed using the bracket notation.
  // Example: `response.headers['content-type']`
  headers: {},

  // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request
  config: {},

  // `request` is the request that generated this response
  // It is the last ClientRequest instance in node.js (in redirects)
  // and an XMLHttpRequest instance in the browser
  request: {}
}

When using then, you will receive the response as follows:

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response.data);
    console.log(response.status);
    console.log(response.statusText);
    console.log(response.headers);
    console.log(response.config);
  });

When using catch, or passing a rejection callback as second parameter of then, the response will be available through the error object as explained in the Handling Errors section.

Config Defaults

You can specify config defaults that will be applied to every request.

Global axios defaults

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com';

// Important: If axios is used with multiple domains, the AUTH_TOKEN will be sent to all of them.
// See below for an example using Custom instance defaults instead.
axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

Custom instance defaults

// Set config defaults when creating the instance
const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com'
});

// Alter defaults after instance has been created
instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

Config order of precedence

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library
// At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library
const instance = axios.create();

// Override timeout default for the library
// Now all requests using this instance will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out
instance.defaults.timeout = 2500;

// Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time
instance.get('/longRequest', {
  timeout: 5000
});

Interceptors

You can intercept requests or responses before they are handled by then or catch.

// Add a request interceptor
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
    // Do something before request is sent
    return config;
  }, function (error) {
    // Do something with request error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

// Add a response interceptor
axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {
    // Any status code that lie within the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger
    // Do something with response data
    return response;
  }, function (error) {
    // Any status codes that falls outside the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger
    // Do something with response error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

If you need to remove an interceptor later you can.

const myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

You can also clear all interceptors for requests or responses.

const instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});
instance.interceptors.request.clear(); // Removes interceptors from requests
instance.interceptors.response.use(function () {/*...*/});
instance.interceptors.response.clear(); // Removes interceptors from responses

You can add interceptors to a custom instance of axios.

const instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

When you add request interceptors, they are presumed to be asynchronous by default. This can cause a delay in the execution of your axios request when the main thread is blocked (a promise is created under the hood for the interceptor and your request gets put on the bottom of the call stack). If your request interceptors are synchronous you can add a flag to the options object that will tell axios to run the code synchronously and avoid any delays in request execution.

axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
  config.headers.test = 'I am only a header!';
  return config;
}, null, { synchronous: true });

If you want to execute a particular interceptor based on a runtime check, you can add a runWhen function to the options object. The interceptor will not be executed if and only if the return of runWhen is false. The function will be called with the config object (don't forget that you can bind your own arguments to it as well.) This can be handy when you have an asynchronous request interceptor that only needs to run at certain times.

function onGetCall(config) {
  return config.method === 'get';
}
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
  config.headers.test = 'special get headers';
  return config;
}, null, { runWhen: onGetCall });

Multiple Interceptors

Given you add multiple response interceptors and when the response was fulfilled

  • then each interceptor is executed
  • then they are executed in the order they were added
  • then only the last interceptor's result is returned
  • then every interceptor receives the result of its predecessor
  • and when the fulfillment-interceptor throws
    • then the following fulfillment-interceptor is not called
    • then the following rejection-interceptor is called
    • once caught, another following fulfill-interceptor is called again (just like in a promise chain).

Read the interceptor tests for seeing all this in code.

Handling Errors

the default behavior is to reject every response that returns with a status code that falls out of the range of 2xx and treat it as an error.

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (error) {
    if (error.response) {
      // The request was made and the server responded with a status code
      // that falls out of the range of 2xx
      console.log(error.response.data);
      console.log(error.response.status);
      console.log(error.response.headers);
    } else if (error.request) {
      // The request was made but no response was received
      // `error.request` is an instance of XMLHttpRequest in the browser and an instance of
      // http.ClientRequest in node.js
      console.log(error.request);
    } else {
      // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error
      console.log('Error', error.message);
    }
    console.log(error.config);
  });

Using the validateStatus config option, you can override the default condition (status >= 200 && status < 300) and define HTTP code(s) that should throw an error.

axios.get('/user/12345', {
  validateStatus: function (status) {
    return status < 500; // Resolve only if the status code is less than 500
  }
})

Using toJSON you get an object with more information about the HTTP error.

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error.toJSON());
  });

Cancellation

AbortController

Starting from v0.22.0 Axios supports AbortController to cancel requests in fetch API way:

const controller = new AbortController();

axios.get('/foo/bar', {
   signal: controller.signal
}).then(function(response) {
   //...
});
// cancel the request
controller.abort()

CancelToken πŸ‘Ždeprecated

You can also cancel a request using a CancelToken.

The axios cancel token API is based on the withdrawn cancellable promises proposal.

This API is deprecated since v0.22.0 and shouldn't be used in new projects

You can create a cancel token using the CancelToken.source factory as shown below:

const CancelToken = axios.CancelToken;
const source = CancelToken.source();

axios.get('/user/12345', {
  cancelToken: source.token
}).catch(function (thrown) {
  if (axios.isCancel(thrown)) {
    console.log('Request canceled', thrown.message);
  } else {
    // handle error
  }
});

axios.post('/user/12345', {
  name: 'new name'
}, {
  cancelToken: source.token
})

// cancel the request (the message parameter is optional)
source.cancel('Operation canceled by the user.');

You can also create a cancel token by passing an executor function to the CancelToken constructor:

const CancelToken = axios.CancelToken;
let cancel;

axios.get('/user/12345', {
  cancelToken: new CancelToken(function executor(c) {
    // An executor function receives a cancel function as a parameter
    cancel = c;
  })
});

// cancel the request
cancel();

Note: you can cancel several requests with the same cancel token/abort controller. If a cancellation token is already cancelled at the moment of starting an Axios request, then the request is cancelled immediately, without any attempts to make a real request.

During the transition period, you can use both cancellation APIs, even for the same request:

Using application/x-www-form-urlencoded format

URLSearchParams

By default, axios serializes JavaScript objects to JSON. To send data in the application/x-www-form-urlencoded format instead, you can use the URLSearchParams API, which is supported in the vast majority of browsers,and Node starting with v10 (released in 2018).

const params = new URLSearchParams({ foo: 'bar' });
params.append('extraparam', 'value');
axios.post('/foo', params);

Query string (Older browsers)

For compatibility with very old browsers, there is a polyfill available (make sure to polyfill the global environment).

Alternatively, you can encode data using the qs library:

const qs = require('qs');
axios.post('/foo', qs.stringify({ 'bar': 123 }));

Or in another way (ES6),

import qs from 'qs';
const data = { 'bar': 123 };
const options = {
  method: 'POST',
  headers: { 'content-type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' },
  data: qs.stringify(data),
  url,
};
axios(options);

Older Node.js versions

For older Node.js engines, you can use the querystring module as follows:

const querystring = require('querystring');
axios.post('https://something.com/', querystring.stringify({ foo: 'bar' }));

You can also use the qs library.

Note The qs library is preferable if you need to stringify nested objects, as the querystring method has known issues with that use case.

πŸ†• Automatic serialization to URLSearchParams

Axios will automatically serialize the data object to urlencoded format if the content-type header is set to "application/x-www-form-urlencoded".

const data = {
  x: 1,
  arr: [1, 2, 3],
  arr2: [1, [2], 3],
  users: [{name: 'Peter', surname: 'Griffin'}, {name: 'Thomas', surname: 'Anderson'}],
};

await axios.postForm('https://postman-echo.com/post', data,
  {headers: {'content-type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}}
);

The server will handle it as:

  {
    x: '1',
    'arr[]': [ '1', '2', '3' ],
    'arr2[0]': '1',
    'arr2[1][0]': '2',
    'arr2[2]': '3',
    'arr3[]': [ '1', '2', '3' ],
    'users[0][name]': 'Peter',
    'users[0][surname]': 'griffin',
    'users[1][name]': 'Thomas',
    'users[1][surname]': 'Anderson'
  }

If your backend body-parser (like body-parser of express.js) supports nested objects decoding, you will get the same object on the server-side automatically

  var app = express();

  app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({ extended: true })); // support encoded bodies

  app.post('/', function (req, res, next) {
     // echo body as JSON
     res.send(JSON.stringify(req.body));
  });

  server = app.listen(3000);

Using multipart/form-data format

FormData

To send the data as a multipart/formdata you need to pass a formData instance as a payload. Setting the Content-Type header is not required as Axios guesses it based on the payload type.

const formData = new FormData();
formData.append('foo', 'bar');

axios.post('https://httpbin.org/post', formData);

In node.js, you can use the form-data library as follows:

const FormData = require('form-data');

const form = new FormData();
form.append('my_field', 'my value');
form.append('my_buffer', new Buffer(10));
form.append('my_file', fs.createReadStream('/foo/bar.jpg'));

axios.post('https://example.com', form)

πŸ†• Automatic serialization to FormData

Starting from v0.27.0, Axios supports automatic object serialization to a FormData object if the request Content-Type header is set to multipart/form-data.

The following request will submit the data in a FormData format (Browser & Node.js):

import axios from 'axios';

axios.post('https://httpbin.org/post', {x: 1}, {
  headers: {
    'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data'
  }
}).then(({data}) => console.log(data));

In the node.js build, the (form-data) polyfill is used by default.

You can overload the FormData class by setting the env.FormData config variable, but you probably won't need it in most cases:

const axios = require('axios');
var FormData = require('form-data');

axios.post('https://httpbin.org/post', {x: 1, buf: new Buffer(10)}, {
  headers: {
    'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data'
  }
}).then(({data}) => console.log(data));

Axios FormData serializer supports some special endings to perform the following operations:

  • {} - serialize the value with JSON.stringify
  • [] - unwrap the array-like object as separate fields with the same key

Note unwrap/expand operation will be used by default on arrays and FileList objects

FormData serializer supports additional options via config.formSerializer: object property to handle rare cases:

  • visitor: Function - user-defined visitor function that will be called recursively to serialize the data object to a FormData object by following custom rules.

  • dots: boolean = false - use dot notation instead of brackets to serialize arrays and objects;

  • metaTokens: boolean = true - add the special ending (e.g user{}: '{"name": "John"}') in the FormData key. The back-end body-parser could potentially use this meta-information to automatically parse the value as JSON.

  • indexes: null|false|true = false - controls how indexes will be added to unwrapped keys of flat array-like objects

    • null - don't add brackets (arr: 1, arr: 2, arr: 3)
    • false(default) - add empty brackets (arr[]: 1, arr[]: 2, arr[]: 3)
    • true - add brackets with indexes (arr[0]: 1, arr[1]: 2, arr[2]: 3)

Let's say we have an object like this one:

const obj = {
  x: 1,
  arr: [1, 2, 3],
  arr2: [1, [2], 3],
  users: [{name: 'Peter', surname: 'Griffin'}, {name: 'Thomas', surname: 'Anderson'}],
  'obj2{}': [{x:1}]
};

The following steps will be executed by the Axios serializer internally:

const formData = new FormData();
formData.append('x', '1');
formData.append('arr[]', '1');
formData.append('arr[]', '2');
formData.append('arr[]', '3');
formData.append('arr2[0]', '1');
formData.append('arr2[1][0]', '2');
formData.append('arr2[2]', '3');
formData.append('users[0][name]', 'Peter');
formData.append('users[0][surname]', 'Griffin');
formData.append('users[1][name]', 'Thomas');
formData.append('users[1][surname]', 'Anderson');
formData.append('obj2{}', '[{"x":1}]');

Axios supports the following shortcut methods: postForm, putForm, patchForm which are just the corresponding http methods with the Content-Type header preset to multipart/form-data.

Files Posting

You can easily submit a single file:

await axios.postForm('https://httpbin.org/post', {
  'myVar' : 'foo',
  'file': document.querySelector('#fileInput').files[0]
});

or multiple files as multipart/form-data:

await axios.postForm('https://httpbin.org/post', {
  'files[]': document.querySelector('#fileInput').files
});

FileList object can be passed directly:

await axios.postForm('https://httpbin.org/post', document.querySelector('#fileInput').files)

All files will be sent with the same field names: files[].

πŸ†• HTML Form Posting (browser)

Pass HTML Form element as a payload to submit it as multipart/form-data content.

await axios.postForm('https://httpbin.org/post', document.querySelector('#htmlForm'));

FormData and HTMLForm objects can also be posted as JSON by explicitly setting the Content-Type header to application/json:

await axios.post('https://httpbin.org/post', document.querySelector('#htmlForm'), {
  headers: {
    'Content-Type': 'application/json'
  }
})

For example, the Form

<form id="form">
  <input type="text" name="foo" value="1">
  <input type="text" name="deep.prop" value="2">
  <input type="text" name="deep prop spaced" value="3">
  <input type="text" name="baz" value="4">
  <input type="text" name="baz" value="5">

  <select name="user.age">
    <option value="value1">Value 1</option>
    <option value="value2" selected>Value 2</option>
    <option value="value3">Value 3</option>
  </select>

  <input type="submit" value="Save">
</form>

will be submitted as the following JSON object:

{
  "foo": "1",
  "deep": {
    "prop": {
      "spaced": "3"
    }
  },
  "baz": [
    "4",
    "5"
  ],
  "user": {
    "age": "value2"
  }
}

Sending Blobs/Files as JSON (base64) is not currently supported.

πŸ†• Progress capturing

Axios supports both browser and node environments to capture request upload/download progress.

await axios.post(url, data, {
  onUploadProgress: function (axiosProgressEvent) {
    /*{
      loaded: number;
      total?: number;
      progress?: number; // in range [0..1]
      bytes: number; // how many bytes have been transferred since the last trigger (delta)
      estimated?: number; // estimated time in seconds
      rate?: number; // upload speed in bytes
      upload: true; // upload sign
    }*/
  },

  onDownloadProgress: function (axiosProgressEvent) {
    /*{
      loaded: number;
      total?: number;
      progress?: number;
      bytes: number; 
      estimated?: number;
      rate?: number; // download speed in bytes
      download: true; // download sign
    }*/
  }
});  

You can also track stream upload/download progress in node.js:

const {data} = await axios.post(SERVER_URL, readableStream, {
   onUploadProgress: ({progress}) => {
     console.log((progress * 100).toFixed(2));
   },
  
   headers: {
    'Content-Length': contentLength
   },

   maxRedirects: 0 // avoid buffering the entire stream
});

Note: Capturing FormData upload progress is currently not currently supported in node.js environments.

⚠️ Warning It is recommended to disable redirects by setting maxRedirects: 0 to upload the stream in the node.js environment, as follow-redirects package will buffer the entire stream in RAM without following the "backpressure" algorithm.

πŸ†• Rate limiting

Download and upload rate limits can only be set for the http adapter (node.js):

const {data} = await axios.post(LOCAL_SERVER_URL, myBuffer, {
  onUploadProgress: ({progress, rate}) => {
    console.log(`Upload [${(progress*100).toFixed(2)}%]: ${(rate / 1024).toFixed(2)}KB/s`)
  },
   
  maxRate: [100 * 1024], // 100KB/s limit
});

Semver

Until axios reaches a 1.0 release, breaking changes will be released with a new minor version. For example 0.5.1, and 0.5.4 will have the same API, but 0.6.0 will have breaking changes.

Promises

axios depends on a native ES6 Promise implementation to be supported. If your environment doesn't support ES6 Promises, you can polyfill.

TypeScript

axios includes TypeScript definitions and a type guard for axios errors.

let user: User = null;
try {
  const { data } = await axios.get('/user?ID=12345');
  user = data.userDetails;
} catch (error) {
  if (axios.isAxiosError(error)) {
    handleAxiosError(error);
  } else {
    handleUnexpectedError(error);
  }
}

Because axios dual publishes with an ESM default export and a CJS module.exports, there are some caveats. The recommended setting is to use "moduleResolution": "node16" (this is implied by "module": "node16"). Note that this requires TypeScript 4.7 or greater. If use ESM, your settings should be fine. If you compile TypeScript to CJS and you can’t use "moduleResolution": "node 16", you have to enable esModuleInterop. If you use TypeScript to type check CJS JavaScript code, your only option is to use "moduleResolution": "node16".

Online one-click setup

You can use Gitpod, an online IDE(which is free for Open Source) for contributing or running the examples online.

Open in Gitpod

Resources

Credits

axios is heavily inspired by the $http service provided in AngularJS. Ultimately axios is an effort to provide a standalone $http-like service for use outside of AngularJS.

License

MIT

axios's People

Contributors

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axios's Issues

unhandled 'error' event in node

When making a request to a url that doesn't exist, axios crashes the server on an unhandled 'error' event.

var axios = require('axios');

axios.post('http://google.com').then(function(response) {
    console.log('woo a response', response);
  })
  .catch(function(response) {
    console.log('hrrm, an error', repsonse);
  });

// needed to prevent node from immediately exiting without actually making the request
setTimeout(function() {
  console.log('what in the world, why isn\'t this waiting to exit')
}, 5000);

It looks like the problem is no req.on('error') handler on https://github.com/mzabriskie/axios/blob/1d6430f667486ca9de390ccec242114b36c41377/lib/adapters/http.js#L80.

I'm not sure the best way to handle an error here though, since it doesn't fit the expected {data, status, headers, config} type of message the reject handler expects.

Provide .done() or other method to throw Exception out of chain

Consider this code:

// fragment of react-based app

Axios.get('/api/robots/')
  .then((res) => { // could be .done() if... see below
    let self = this;
    //setTimeout(function() { // -- this is ugly disabled workaround --
      self.setState(res.data); // if error happen here
    //}, 1);
    console.log(">>> RobotStore.state:", this.state);
  })
  .catch((res) => {
    if (res instanceof Error) { // it is catched here
      // unpredictable error, release 
      throw Error("test"); // this DOES NOT work, error is swallowed (reject promise which is never used)
    } else {
      // HTTP error, handle
      this.setState(this.getInitialState());
    }
  }); 

So axios (actually ES6 Promise engine) swallows app errors (which I want to bubble up and crash everything, as it's not runtime error).

http://bahmutov.calepin.co/why-promises-need-to-be-done.html

But looks like done still is not a part of spec and "ugly workaround" is required. Some authors insist on deprecating done at all.

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/26667598/will-javascript-es6-promise-support-done-api

I'ml aware of all aspects of this subject. What can you propose to solve this issue?
Monkeypatch .done? Leave setTimeout "trick" as it is? Or there are other ways?

Async transforms

What do you think about returning promises from transforms? I have a case where I need to perform some async operation in a transform.

Babel with Axios

Hi, I'm using Webpack to build our scripts. We are also using Babel's polyfill (browser polyfill). While building the scripts in Ubuntu Server 14.04, I encounter this:

Cannot resolve module `vertx` in <path/to/es6-promise/dist>`

question: having problem posting object

i have (coffeescript) code like this running in a browser:

    axios.post @props.url, {foo: 'bar'}
    .then (res) =>
      dbg 'handle-comment-submit: res=%o', res
      @setState data: res.data
    .catch (err) ->
      console.error 'handle-comment-submit: err=%o', err

and server side code like this running in a gulp task:

gulp.task 'server', ->
  gulp.src buildApp
  .pipe plug.webserver(
    livereload: false
    directoryListing: false
    open: true
    middleware: [
      bodyParser.urlencoded extended: false

      (req, res, next) ->
        dbg 'middleware: url=%s, method=%s', req.url, req.method
        if (req.url == '/comments.json') and (req.method == 'POST')
          fileName = "#{buildApp}/comments.json"
          fs.readFile fileName, (err, data) ->
            if err
              console.log 'read-file: err=%o', err
            comments = JSON.parse data
            dbg 'middleware: comments=%o, body=%o', comments, req.body # <--------
            comments.push req.body
            fs.writeFile fileName, JSON.stringify(comments, null, 4), (err) ->
              if err
                console.log 'write-file: err=%o', err
              res.setHeader 'Content-Type', 'application/json'
              res.setHeader 'Cache-Control', 'no-cache'
              res.end JSON.stringify(comments)
        else
          next()
    ]

the log message with the <------- shows that body is empty like {}

but when using the following jquery code in the browser, the body is as expected:

$.ajax
      url: @props.url
      dataType: 'json'
      type: 'POST'
      data: comment
      success: (data) =>
        dbg 'handle-comment-submit: data=%o', data
        @setState data: data
      error: (xhr, status, err) =>
        console.error @props.url, status, err.toString()

i'm sure i'm being a dunce, but any guidance as to what i might do to get the desired effect with axios?

regards,
tony

Set response encoding

I wanted to get a buffer out of some binary data from a GET request but I couldn't get it to work unless I put res.setEncoding('binary') inside http.js
Any suggestions?

Standalone build possibly broken

Hello there,

I'm trying to use axios.standalone.js in Chrome 39 (which has built-in Promise) and have been getting the following error:

Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property 'Promise' of undefined

Which traces back to https://github.com/mzabriskie/axios/blob/master/dist/axios.standalone.js#L54, as follows:

    /* WEBPACK VAR INJECTION */(function(process) {var Promise = __webpack_require__(2).Promise;

However, __webpack_require__(2) is undefined, as https://github.com/mzabriskie/axios/blob/master/dist/axios.standalone.js#L161 suggests,

/***/ function(module, exports, __webpack_require__) {

    module.exports = undefined;

/***/ },

Can this possibly be a bug?

Regards,

xkxx

FormData() with 'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data'?

Trying to send an image across the network. Can't figure out what isn't working.
Headers:

{ 'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data' }

Content is a FormData Blob object:

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Guide/Using_FormData_Objects

using the request API with

{url: '...', method: 'put', data: blob, headers: {}}

Data seems to get swallowed up and not sent by axios. Body reported by chrome as {}.

This was working with the 'rest' package before I switched over.

Any idea what might be going wrong?

Cannot run specs: ReferenceError: Can't find variable: getJasmineRequireObj

Finally got time to work on #21

but I'm unable to run specs. I get following error on the current master (7efc095):

[email protected] ~/axios
(master|!⚑)$ npm test

> [email protected] test /home/epeli/axios
> grunt test

Running "webpack:global" (webpack) task
Version: webpack 1.5.3      
    Asset   Size  Chunks             Chunk Names
 axios.js  56527       0  [emitted]  main
axios.map  67647       0  [emitted]  main

Running "nodeunit:all" (nodeunit) task
Testing http.js..OK
Testing buildUrl.js.......OK
Testing defaults.js....OK
Testing parseHeaders.js.OK
Testing spread.js.OK
Testing transformData.js..OK
Testing forEach.js....OK
Testing isX.js......OK
Testing merge.js..OK
Testing trim.js..OK
>> 46 assertions passed (94ms)

Running "karma:single" (karma) task
INFO [karma]: Karma v0.12.31 server started at http://localhost:9876/
INFO [launcher]: Starting browser PhantomJS
INFO [PhantomJS 1.9.8 (Linux)]: Connected on socket b6e-nUZdVz5M2DH6pJbA with id 65106151
PhantomJS 1.9.8 (Linux) ERROR
  ReferenceError: Can't find variable: getJasmineRequireObj
  at /home/epeli/axios/node_modules/karma-jasmine-ajax/node_modules/jasmine-ajax/lib/mock-ajax.js:33


Warning: Task "karma:single" failed. Use --force to continue.

Aborted due to warnings.
npm ERR! Test failed.  See above for more details.
npm ERR! not ok code 0
[email protected] ~/axios
(master|!⚑)$ 

I'm on 64bit Ubuntu Trusty. Any ideas what I'm missing?

Configure the promise implementation

I wish to provide my own Promise implementation (core-js), so I do not want browserify do bundle the es6-promise module. Is there a simple way to configure axios not to require this module?

// Polyfill ES6 Promise if needed
require('es6-promise').polyfill();

Allow build without es6 promise polyfill

Great stuff! This seem to be the only lib I found that actually use native es6 promise with proper responseType for xhr2.

One suggestion: we actually manage polyfills separately, would be great to have a build without polyfill bundled to save some bytes.

posting with formdata not working

tried doing something like

var fileData = new FormData();
      fileData.append("File1", file);

return axios({
                    method: 'post',
                    url: response.data.ChunkUri,
                    data: fileData,

                });

this returned an error from the server saying that there was no file sent. But...

vs jquery which worked and the file uploaded successfully.


                var options = {
                    type: "POST",
                    url: response.data.ChunkUri,
                    data: fileData,
                    cache: false,
                    contentType: false,
                    processData: false,
                    success: function(e){
                            console.log("YAY:: " + e);
                    },
                    error: function(a){
                        console.log("failed:: ");
                    }

                };
                return $.ajax(options);

Support finally?

Would it be feasible to support finally? Ie.

axios.get(...).then(...).catch(...).finally(...);

It would get triggered in both then/catch cases and seems to be common in Promise implementations (handy for cleanup).

Lowercase PATCH verb sent in CORS preflight request result in a rejected method when the server responds with an uppercase PATCH allow-methods

For cross-origin requests the browser usually sends a preflight OPTIONS request. This request usually asks "Can I use method POST for this resource?" among other questions, by specifying a Access-Control-Request-Headers: POST.

The server will then respond with Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, POST allowing the method.

With axios, sending a patch request creates a Access-Control-Request-Headers: patch request, and if the server responds with Access-Control-Allow-Methods: PATCH, the created XmlHttpRequest does not send an uppercase PATCH verb, but sends a lowercase one, and the browser decides to disallow the request.

This occurs only with PATCH. The reason for this is unclear, but on Chrome 39 on Firefox 33 it seems that all verbs are auto-corrected to uppercase with the exception of PATCH.

Why is this an issue? Because according to the spec, HTTP verbs are case-sensitive, and should be uppercase by default.

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2616.txt

The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-sensitive.
[list of HTTP methods, GET, POST ...]

Thus, the culprit is in fact both in axios and browsers: because browsers tend to uppercase the preflight verbs (but patch seems to be omitted, I have not tested other verbs), and axios sends a lowercase method parameter here.

I think the simplest fix would just be to set the line to method: method.toUpperCase(). This fixed it for me.

Timeout configuration?

hi,
I was wondering if there is a way to configure the default timeout for axios requests?

thanks,
chris

Catching errors from other things

The .catch from one ajax call is catching errors completely unrelated. One time I had required a file that did not exist, and it was being caught inside a module that I was making an ajax request in using axios. Promises seem to be messed up.

http not posting data in node

axios({ 
  url: 'http://requestb.in/ubgv1aub',
  data: { test: true }
})

successfully posts but the request body is empty. Probably missing some headers, but setting Content-Type and Content-Length manually cause axios to hang for some reason.

Use it with almond

Hi,

I would like to be able to do a require('axios') with almond. The file is correctly found but the result of the require is always undefined (even with axios.amd or axios.standalone). Do you have any insights on this?

Nice lib by the way!

Thanks

Robin

How to handle error from JSON.parse

The transformRequest method attempts to parse JSON, but swallows any error in an empty catch statement. This results in the stringified form of the response body to be returned should the JSON be malformed, and supplied to the response object that is used to resolve the Promise.

Without the try/catch a global error would occur. With the try/catch the code handling the response will error, but in an unpredictable way. Consider:

// Assume a malformed response from the server for the request.
// Missing quotes around property names:
//   {firstName: "Jimmy", lastName: "Page", isBlocked: true}
axios.get('/user/12345').then((res) => {
  var user = res.data;
  if (!user.isBlocked) {
    // Do something potentially dangerous that only an unblocked user should be allowed to do
  }
});

In this case user is a String not an Object as expected. Calling 'some string'.isBlocked will return undefined, which evaluates as falsey. This will cause the if condition to erroneously be entered.

A potential solution would be to reject the Promise if JSON.parse throws an Error. This isn't a straight forward fix though as it would break #55 again.

Deflate/gunzip

It would be nice to see support for deflating/gunzipping requests. Have you thought about this?

Question: Getting the headers for tests

I feel like this is out of topic, though. Anyway --

I'm implementing JWT with Axios, and would like to send the Authorization Header through the interceptor. Question, how do I test with Sinon that I am able to send the said header? Which do I spy? Thanks.

Edit: I just checked the API, and the headers doesn't seem to be covered in the interceptors. In the Interceptors example, is config equal to the whole request API or just the config in it?

Provide access to the response's statusText

As far I can see it is currently only possible to access the status code.
It would be great if it would be possible to also access the statusText especially when the request fails.

Support "foo" as valid json

As for
var JSON_START = /^\s*([|{[^{])/;
in defaults.js

I think "foo" is also a valid json, so I think you should include " in your JSON_START and JSON_STOP

SSL Support in Node

Hi,

Awesome job on axios. One question I have is, is https compatibility in Node something that you would consider for this package? Currently, it looks like there is just an http adapter. Would you consider https and if so, would you consider a flag to ignore self signed ssl certs?

Thanks much!

Don't throw an error on bad status code

I saw issue #24 and promptly agreed, opening PR #32. However, after some more playing around with this lib, I realized that throwing an error on a non 200 status code doesn't make much sense to me. Shouldn't that validation be done on the consumer-side? I started using axios for tests and realized that it screws with those that need to verify some sort of validation (i.e. tests that expect non-200 error codes).

Considering how easy it is to layer functionality with promises, this really seems like something a consumer of axios should explicitly decide

route-specific interceptors

Perhaps there is already a way to do this. It would be nice to be able to do route-specific interceptors in a express-familiar style, such as:

var axios = require('axios')
axios.interceptors.request.use('/foo', function(config) {
  // ...
})

This is relevant to me lately since I want to put a client-only caching layer in front of my isomorphic controllers in a React app.

node.js exits before request finishes

I found this trying to reproduce a separate issue. It could also be because I'm doing something dumb.

var axios = require('axios');
axios.get('/durp').then(function(res) { console.log('response is', res);}).catch(function(res) { console.log('err response is', res);});

If you run this in node v0.10.25 and axios v0.4.0, node will just exit immediately before calling either callback.

Getting the XHR instance

Hmm, I'm currently implementing a progress bar with xhr.upload. I just checked the docs, but I couldn't squeeze out any info at all. Is the instance exposed with the latest versions?

ES6-Promise

If I am building with Babel, will the polyfill still get included?

Don't throw error / catch on 400-level responses

Instead, limit the error/catch to 500-level errors. 400-level responses can be completely valid, expected, desired, etc.

I have been following this pattern with my bunyan logging -- logging 400-level responses as warnings, and 500-level responses as errors. The idea is that a successful npm test (which may expect 400-level responses) should show zero logging errors.

Support named results in .all

Like async's parallel. So it could go from this:

axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
    .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) {
        // Both requests are now complete
    }));

to this:

axios.all({ acct: getUserAccount(), perms: getUserPermissions()})
    .then(function (results) {
        // Both requests are now complete
        var acct = results.acct;
        var perms = results.perms;
    });

This makes adding new requests to all simpler because you don't have to keep track of the order of items. This is how I normally do stuff when I use async. Just thought I'd suggest it.

axios.all doesn't work

axios.all(axios.get(...), axios.get(...))
  .then(function (results) {
    // This never gets called
  });

No Clear way to abort XmlHttpRequest

Is there a simple way to expose the XHR object so that it can be aborted, or is this better off being handled somehow in a response interceptor?

Reject with error

It is good practice to reject promises with an error object because they have stack traces.

When rejecting because of a bad status code, I suggest rejecting with an error object, e.g. BadStatusCodeError. You could then attach the response object to the error object so it can be accessed in a rejection handler.

NodeJS - Cookie Jar Support

axios running on NodeJS does not provide Cookie jar support natively. Ideally the library would either provide built in cookie jar functionality or easily accommodate existing cookie jar libraries.

The Request API could be modified to support the following options:

{
...
  // `jar` is a boolean that controls cookie jar support for the request
  jar: true, // default
...
}

or

{
...
  // `jar` is a cookie jar that will be used for the request
  jar: cookieJar, // default
...
}

where

var tough = require('tough-cookie');
var cookiejar = new tough.CookieJar();

Note:
Trivial cookie support using tough-cookie can be added by leveraging interceptors:

var tough = require('tough-cookie');
var Cookie = tough.Cookie;
var cookiejar = new tough.CookieJar();

axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
  cookiejar.getCookies(config.url, function(err, cookies) {
    config.headers.cookie = cookies.join('; ');
  });
  return config;
});

axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {
  if (response.headers['set-cookie'] instanceof Array) {
    cookies = response.headers['set-cookie'].forEach(function (c) {
      cookiejar.setCookie(Cookie.parse(c), response.config.url, function(err, cookie){});
    });
  }
  return response;
});

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